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Abbasid – A dynasty that reigned in the middle of the second century of the Islamic calendar through the eighth century. It dominated particularly Central Middle Easter region (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and the Arabia Peninsula.
Abu Hanifa – A second Islamic century jurist and the founder of the Hanafi School of fiqh.
Abu Ubaydah – A general who lead the Muslim Armies the conquest the Byzantine Empire during the reign of the first Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Yusu – A jurist who served a chief judge during the reign of the third Abbasid Caliph.
Abyssinia – A strong kingdom flourished in the forth and sixth centuries in Northeast Africa, in the region of modern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Ahkam – the plural of hukm
Al-Tabari – A Muslim historian who wrote the first voluminous work describing early Muslim history.
Aman – A permission to enter a Muslim territory (dar al-Islam) historically given to a non-Muslim living in a hostile country (dar al-harb).
Banu Qaynuqa – A Jewish tribe lived in Madina around the time of the Prophet.
Dar al-harb – A political community engaged in war and hostility with the Muslims
Dar al-Islam – The territories in which Islamic law prevail.
Fiqh – A term referring to the various doctrine and rules derived from the Islamic sources by Muslim jurists.
Futuh al-Buldan – A voluminous book by the forth century Muslim historian al Baladhuri. The book describes in detail the life various Muslim cities.
Hadith – The written tradition of the Prophet of Islam.
Hijra – The literal meaning of the word is immigration. It usually refers to the immigration of early Muslims from Makkah to Madina. The event marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
Hijri – The adjective of Hijra.
Hudaybia – A place near Makkah where an important peace treaty between the early Muslims and Quraysh was signed.
Hukum – Shari’ah ruling. Hukum could be a general ruling (hokum ‘am), or a particular ruling (hukum khass).
Ibarah al-nass – The direct meaning of a statement.
Ja’far bin Abu-Talib – A companion of the Prophet, migrated to Abassynia.
Jizyah – A tax historically imposed on member of non-Muslim community.
Khandaq - A Trench dug around a city for defense purposes.
Kharaj – A tax imposed on productive land, or herald.
Madina – A city in West Arabia to the north of Makkah, where the fist Islamic community was founded by the Prophet.
Madinan – The adjective of Madina.
Makkan – A city in West Arabia where the Prophet was born. Makkah is the center Muslim face during their daily prayers, and the site of the annual pilgrimage (Hajj).
Makkah – The adjective of Makkah.
Malik – Malik bin Anas is a Muslim jurist and the founder of one of the forth main schools of firq.
Mansukh – Qura’anic texts that have been abrogated by other texts.
Mawardi – A Muslim jurist who lived in the forth Islamic century during the Abbasid Caliphate.
Mu’tah – A town in present day Jordan, and was the site of the first battle between the Byzantine and Muslim armies.
Muhammad bin al-Hassan – A leading Muslim jurist in the Hanifi school of fiqh.
Muhkam – A firm Shari’ah ruling, which mean a ruling the has clear meaning with a none controversial application.
Mushrik - A polytheist who worship idols.
Najashi – The king of Abassinya during the time of the Prophet. He was sympathetic to Muslims and provided protection to Muslims who sought refuge in his kingdom.
Nass –Literally means “text.” It is used often in reference to the Qur’anic text.
Qur’an – The book Muslims belief to be the word of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad.
Quraysh – The tribe of the Prophet.
Ridda – The act of renouncing Islam; apostasy.
Salam – Peace
Sarakhsi – A Muslim jurist of the Hanafi school.
Shafi’i – A leading Muslim jurist and the founder of the second school of fiqh in the Sunni branch of Islam.
Sham – The region of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine.
Shari’ah – Islamic Law
Siyar – A term used by the Hanafi jurist to refer to rulings governing the purpose and method of war.
Sunnah – The tradition of the Prophet.
Surah – A chapter of the Qur’an.
Suraqah bin amr – A member of Quraysh who attempted to capture the Prophet during his journey of immigration from Makkah to Madina. He later embraced Islam and fought the Muslim armies that conquered Persia.
Ta’wil – A method of interpretation of the Qur’an.
‘Udwan – Aggression.
Ummah – Community of the believers, often used to refer to the Muslim community.
Usul al-fiqh – Islamic jurisprudence.
Zakah – An obligatory charity paid by Muslims. One of the five pillars of Islam.
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